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: 26.01.2014
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1 .

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

2

2.1

2.2 0

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.6

2.7

2.8

2.9

2.10 ,

2.11

2.12

2.13 蠠

2.14 , ⠠

2.15 蠠

3. ܠ

3.1

3.2 ࠠ

3.3

4 4.1 蠠

4.2 -

4.3

4.4 , ࠠ

5 ܠ

5.1

5.2 蠠

5.3

5.4 , ,

6

6.1

6.2

6.

6.4

6.5

6.6

6.7

6.8

6.9 -

1 2 " "

2 2 ""

3 2 " "

4 1 " "

5 3 " "

6 3 " "

7 1 " "

8 1 " "


.

"-2030" , , .

, .

, .


1

1.1

21003-100 . , - , . , , , .

. .

.

(, , = 6 (60/2)),

1.2

1) 1515 92 H=200 2 078I-084-77

2)

-6-5,0-2.

3) 6 .

4) H14 h14 - (IT14 / 2)

5) .

40

 
6) .

100

 
7) ꠠ 14 4666-75 .

1.3 .

- 21003-100 25JI 977-75 .

.

, 1.

1 - .

: Mn Si P S Cr Ni Cu
25 1050-74 0,22 -0,30 0,35 - 0,90 0,20 - 0,52 0,06 0,06 0,30 0,30 0,30

1.4

, , .

210-100 , , . , .

2

2.1

21003 - 100

35000 ,

,

.. = Q / PM = 8 / 7 = 1,14 ;

Q- ;

M - , ,

.

, .

, . .

2.2 0

.

- , .

[7]:

t = ,

: t - ;

Fy - .;

N - .

t = = 6,88

2.3

, , , - , - . .

, , , . . . . , .

I .

[3].

2.4.

, .

21003 - 100

m = 27,4

350

:

= .+2 Z, 3.6 [4]

: - ;

- ;

Z0 - .

= . + Zo, 3.7 [4]

: - ;

. - .

Æ230+ 24 =238

Æ115 - 24 = 107

Æ100 - 24 = 92

l 20 +4 = 24

l 19 +4 = 23

l 350+4 x2 == 358

, .. I855-55 AINO 2009-55:

Æ238+ 2= 240 젠 l 358 + 2 = 360

Æ107 - 2 == 105

Æ92-2 =90

l 24 +1 =25

l 23 + 1 =24

2. 5

- , .

, 8 :

F1= ( 2- r2) p =(107,52 -572) p= 25 918,14;

V1 = Fh = 25 918,14 25 =669 657,3 ;

F2 = ( 2- r2) p = (1202 - 502 ) p = 37 384 ,95;

V2 = Fh = 37 384,95x 22 =. 834 383,2;

F3 = ( P2-2) p = ( 8I2- 502 ) p = 12 758;

V3 = Fh = 12 758 x 8 = I23 432,1;

F4 = ( P2-2) p = (65^ 45^) p = 6 911,5;

V4 = Fh == 6 911,5 x 23 .=168 964,5 ;

F5 = ( P2-2) p = ( 87,52 - 52,52) p = 15393 ,82;

\/5 = Fh = 15 393,82 x 40 = 636 753,3 ; _

F6 = ( P2-2) p =(602 - 502) x 0,7854 = 3455,76;

V6 = Fh = 3455,76 x 110 = 401 345 ,2 ;

F7 = ( P2-2) p = 0,7854 (I302 - 1202) = 1963,5 x. 4 = 7854;

V7 = Fh = 7854 x 120 = 973 860;

F8 = ( P2-2) p = ( 752 .- 502) p = 9 817,47;

V8 = Fh = 9817,47 x 20 = 196 349,4;

V - 669 657,2 + 834 383,1 + 123 432,1 + 168 964,5 + 636 753,5 + 401 345,2+ + 973 860,3 + 196 349,4= 4 004745,3

G = Y V3 = 0,00785 x 4 004 745,3 = 31,450

, , , 20%

C = + 31,450 = 37,74

[4]:

.. = :;

.. = 27,4 : 37,74 = 0,73.

2.6

05 -

10 - 14 00

15 - 112

20 - I 284

25 ࠠ - - 1000 - 301

30 - 1 284

35 - 1 AMI 443

40

45

2.7

05 -

10 - 1400

.

1. . .

2. ,

15 - 1400

.

1., ,

2 . Æ 230 l 350 .

20 - 1284

- .

1., .

2. Æ 215 .

3. Æ 115 . t = .

4. Æ 124 .

5 . Æ 215 .

6. Æ 215 , Æ 135 .

25 ࠠ - - 1000 - 301

.

1., .

2 Æ 124 h = .

30 - 1284

.

1., .

2. Æ 124,

3. Æ 113 t =4

4 . Æ 120.

5. Æ 100 .

6. Æ 120.

35 - 1AMO 443

.

1. , .

2. 8 Æ 4.

3. 8 Æ 23.

8 Æ 18.

8 Æ 23.

4. MI6 2 8 .

40 -

.

1. .

2.8

, , , , , ,

, ( , , , ..) . , - .

, .

- I400. Æ 240 Æ 215. ()

112.

Æ 100 .()

1 284.

Æ 230 Æ 215. ()

1 443

- Æ 230. ()

2.9

10

- 1400 C16H8. 21003 - 100 .

251-11 977-75.

1400:

6955-70:

ࠠ 500

ࠠ 1250

ࠠ 1250

ࠠ 18

ࠠ 20-1000 /

ࠠ 4500/

頠 2

頠 1

:

1 200

2 200

3 200

30-550

:

1 19

2 19

3 19

:

1 25-1600 /

2 25--I600 /

3 25-1600 /

:

ࠠ 4290

ࠠ 3425

ࠠ 2900

ࠠ 7,53

ࠠ 13100

ࠠ 186710

15 ,

- 112.

:

-40, 蠠 710

젠 640

12,5-2000/

:

0,0 7-4,16 /

0,04-2,08/

:

ࠠ 2010

ࠠ 2522

ࠠ 1324

ࠠ 2178

ࠠ 7,5

20

1284.

:

ࠠ 6

548

470

頠 6

ࠠ 200

:

ࠠ 3285

ࠠ 2987

ࠠ 4040

ࠠ 15000

ࠠ 115430

;

堠 5

:

򠠠 1

22

󠠠 20-224

0,08-5,00

ࠠ 3,4

25 ࠠ BKCM-IOOO -301

30 1284

35

- 40- IAM0443.

: , , .

:

:

ࠠ 6350

ࠠ 4860

ࠠ 2500

ࠠ 23000

ࠠ 150798

30

1. 2464-011

500

:

򠠠 800720

頠 8

5,5B

2. 2474-012

ࠠ 800

:

򠠠 1200720

頠 24

17,0

3. 54651

ࠠ 400

:

򠠠 800720

頠 8

7,5

2.10 .

10 1400

21003-100

" " .

. ''" ,

.

:

Æ 160

Æ 250

:

11-250-01 166-80

15 112

: 320

:

2102-0059 T5K10 18877-73

2I30-40I5

:

11-250-01 166-80

Æ 230 14 1742 163-83

Æ 230 8II3-4003/2

20 1284

: 425

:

1. 10C2573 (2032100)

2. 1032100-0226-IOO 510 21004-74

3. 1032101-0894-65510 21013-74

4. 12C-C2573 (161665)

5. 11-2573 (161675)

6. 2102-0060 18877-73

7. 10-2573 (2032100)

8. 1032100-0226-100 T5K10 21004-74

:

-11-250-0,1 166-80

-1-125-0.1 166-80

Æ115 14 0742.172-83

Æ115 14 0742.173-83

Æ 94 14 0742.172-83

Æ 94 14 0742.173-83

25 ࠠ BKM- 1000 -301

30 1284

: 425

:

1. 2102-4010 (161670)

2. 2102-4010 0(161670)

3. 2102-4011 (161675)

4. 2102-4009 (161670)

5. 52808 (161670)

6. 13C2573 (161685)

7.3 2329 4005-01

:

-11-250-0.1 166-80

Æ 140 12 0742-172-83

Æ 140 12 0742-173-83

-1-125-01 166-80

0 100 14Р 0742-172-83

0 100 H14HE 0742-173-83

8424-4199

8424-4200-01

35 10443

IAM0443-050

:

Æ 14 2301-3439 12121-77

Æ 23 2301-0079 10903-77

1 2620-16192 3266-71

:

Æ 14 HI2 0742.169-83

Æ 23 HI5 0742.169-3

8221-0068 7͠ 17756-72

822I-1068-7H 17757-72

40

2013

602520 2424-75

2822-0024 71465-69

2.11

Æ 140+0,40

D= 0,7+1/

r.= DxL = 0,7x 350 = 245

r = 245 x 0,06 = 14,7

r = 14,7 x 0,05 = 0,74

- r ,

= 0,06

= 0,05

e = e + e

e = 0

e1 = 140

e2 = 140 0,06 = 8,4

e = 8,4 x 0,05 = 0,42

:

400 -

460 - 3

2000 - 3.3

Zimin . = 2 (RZi-1 + Ti-1 + r2i-1 + e2 )

Zimin = 2 ( 100 + 100 +) = 429;

Zimin .= 2 ( 250 + 250 + =

= 2 ( 500 + ) = 1490;

140 + 0,429 = 140,429

:

139,57 - 1,49 = 138,08

:

140 - 0,4 = 139,6

139,57 - 0,46 = 139,11

138,08 - 2,0 = 136,08

:

139,6 - 139,11 = 0,49 = 490

139,11 - 136,08 = 3,030 = 3030

:

140 - 139,57 = 0,43 = 430

139,57 -138,08 = 1,49 = 1490

:

d1 - d2 = 2000 - 460 = 1540;

Zimin - Zimax = 3030 - 1490 = 1540;

1540 = 1540.

20-0,84

r e

Zimin = RZi-1 + Ti-1 + ri-1 + =

=100 + 100 + 14,7 = 214,7

Zimin = 250 + 250 + 245 + 8,4 = 753,4

20 - 0,84 = 19,16

19,6 + 0,21 = 19,37

19,37 + 0,75 = 20,12

:

19,16 + 0,4 = 19,56 19,37 + 0,46 = 19,83 20,12 + 2,0 = 22,12

:

22,12 - 19,83 = 2,29

:

19,83 - 19,56 = 0,27

:

20,12 - 19,37 = 0,75

19,37 - 19,16 = 0,21

:

d1 - d2 = 2000 - 460 = 1540;

Zimin - Zimax = 3030 - 1490 = 1540;

1540 = 1540.


2.- , .

.

,

Z,

Rzi-1

Ti-1

ri-1

e

max min

Zimax

Zimin

Æ 1400+0,4

, 250 250 245 200 - 138,08 2000 138,08 136,08
100 100 14,7 12 1490 139,57 460 139,57 139,11 1490 3030
25 25 - - 430 140 400 140 139,6 430 490

20-0,84

, 250 250 245 140 20,12 2000 22,12 20,12
100 100 14,7 8,4 753,4 19,37 360 19,83 19,37 2290 750
25 25 - - 214,7 19,16 840 19,56 19,16 270 210

2.12

10

1. [8]

L .. = l + l1= 160 + 70 = 230

2.

L .. = l + l1 = 215 + 130 = 345

3.

L .. = l + l1 = 160 + 70 = 230

t1 =

t2 =

t3 =

[8] .

S1 = 0,24

S2 = 0,24

S3 = 0,24

S [8]

SM1 = 160 /

SM2 = 160 /

SM3 = 160 /

[8]

V1 = 80 /

V2 = 125 /

V3 = 80 /

n1 = 1000 * V / p D = 1000*80 / 3,14*160 = 160 /

n2 = 1000 * V / p D = 1000*125 / 3,14*215 = 160 /

n3 = 1000 * V / p D = 1000*80 / 3,14*160 = 160 /

[8]

N1 = 5,6

N2 = 6,4

N3 = 5,6

.

KN =N / N = 17,6 : 22,5 = 0,78

N = N / h = 17,6 : 0,8 = 22

15 112

[4]

1. L .. = 162 - 100 / 2 =31

l1 = 6 ; L .. = 31 + 6 = 37

2. L .. = 22 + 6 = 28

3. L .. = 31 + 6 = 37

4. L .. = 22 + 6 = 28

t1 = 5

t2 = 5

t3 = 5

t4 = 5

S1 = 0,23

S2 = 0,23

S3 = 0,23

S4 = 0,23

[8]

V = 148

nv -

nv -

nv = 0,5

nv = 0,6

V = 148 0,5 0,6 = 44 /

n = 1000*V / p D = 86 /

: n = 90 /

V = p D n / 1000 = 3,14*160*90 / 1000 = 45 /.

[8]

N1 - . = 1,0 .

t =5 젠 S = 0,3 /

N2 - . = 1,0 .

t =5 젠 S = 0,3 /

N3 - . = 1,0 .

t =5 젠 S = 0,3 /

N4 - . = 1,0 .

t =5 젠 S = 0,3 /

N = N1 + N2 + N3 + N4 = 4

S N £ Nn , Nn = N h,

: h = 0,8 ; N =7,5

Nn = 7,5 0,8 = 6 . < 7,5

4 . < 6 .

ʠ N = N / N = 5 : 7,5 = 0,65

N = N / h = 4 : 0,8 = 5

20 1 284

L . = 215 - 105 / 2 = 55

l1 = 5

L . = 55 + 5 = 60

1. Æ 125

L . = 10 + 2 = 12

2. Æ 94

L . = 25

3. Æ 125

L . = 25

4.

L . = 5

5. Æ 215

L . = 55

1. t = 3

2. t = 4

3. t = 6

4. t = 2

5. t = 2

[8]

S1 = 0,28 /

S2 = 0,2 /

S3 = 0,2 /

S4 = 0,2 /

S5 = 0,28 /

[8]

V = 148 /

nv - , nv = 0,5;

nv - ,

nv = 0,6.

V = 148 0,5 0,6 = 44 /

n1 = 1000 * V / p D = 1000*44 / 3,14*215 = 65,8 /

󠠠 63 /

1.                          V = p D n / 1000 = 3,14*215*63 / 1000 = 42,5 /.

2.                          V2 = p D n / 1000 = 3,14*115*63 / 1000 = 22,7 /.

3.                          V3 = p D n / 1000 = 3,14*124*63 / 1000 = 24,5 /.

4.                          V4 = p D n / 1000 = 3,14*124*63 / 1000 = 24,5 /.

5.                          V5 = p D n / 1000 = 3,14*215*63 / 1000 = 42,5 /.

[8]

N1 - . = 2,0 .

t =3 젠 S = 0,28 /

N2 - . = 2,0 .

t =4 젠 S = 0,2 /

N3 - . = 2,0 .

t =6 젠 S = 0,2 /

N4 - . = 2,0 .

t =2 젠 S = 0,2 /

N5 - . = 2,0 .

t =2 젠 S = 0,28 /

[8]

S N £ Nn , Nn = N h,

: h = 0,8 ; N =30

Nn = 30 0,8 = 24 . < 30

10 . < 24 .

ʠ N = N / N = 12,5 : 30 = 0,41

N = N / h = 10 : 0,8 = 12,5

30 1284

[8] c4

1. l = 22

l1 = 6

L . = 22 + 6 = 28

2. L . = 4

3. L . = 14

4. L . = 25

5. L . = 25

1. t = 3

2. t = 4

3. t = 10

4. t = 3

5. t = 2

[8]

S1 = 0,2 /

S2 = 0,1 /

S3 = 0,1 /

S4 = 0,2 /

S5 = 0,14 /

[8]

V = 148 /

nv -

uv - ,

0v -

nv = 0,5

uv = 0,6

0v = 0,8

V = 148 0,5 0,6 x 0,8 = 35,52 /

S - S6

l - l6

n = 1000 * V / p D = 1000*35 / 3,14*100 = 113,1 /

󠠠 = 90 /

V1 = p D n / 1000 = 3,14*124*90 / 1000 = 31,1 /.

V2 = p D n / 1000 = 3,14*113*80 / 1000 = 28,4 /.

V3 = p D n / 1000 = 3,14*120*80 / 1000 = 30,1 /.

V4 = p D n / 1000 = 3,14*100*80 / 1000 = 25,12 /.

V5 = p D n / 1000 = 3,14*215*63 / 1000 = 30,1 /.

[8]

N1 = 2,0 .

t = 3 젠 S = 0,2 /

N2 = 2,0 .

t = 4 젠 S = 0,1 /

N3 = 2,0 .

t = 10 젠 S = 0,1 /

N4 = 2,0 .

t =3 젠 S = 0,2 /

N5 = 2,0 .

t =2 젠 S = 0,28 /

N = N1 + N2 + N3 + N4 = 4

S N £ Nn , Nn = N h,

: h = 0,8 ; N =7,5

Nn = 7,5 0,8 = 6 . < 7,5

4 . < 6 .

ʠ N = N / N = 5 : 7,5 = 0,65

N = N / h = 4 : 0,8 = 5

35

I. /. =^ ^-^

L . = l + l1 = 28

l = 20

l1 = 6

L . = 20 + 6 = 26

2. L . = 31

3. L . = 2

4. L . = 31

5. L . = 26

1. t = 7

2. t = 11,5

3. t = 9

4. t = 11,5

5. t = 2

[8]

S1 = 0,14 /

S2 = 0,23 /

S3 = 0,25 /

S4 = 0,23 /

S5 = 0,2 /

V1 = 24 /

V2 = 32 /

V3 = 32 /

V4 = 32 /

V5 = 6 /

nv -

nv = 0,6

24*0,6 = 14,4/

n1 = 1000 * V / p D = 1000*14,4 / 3,14*14 = 327,6 /

275 /

V1 = p D n / 1000 = 3,14*14*275 / 1000 = 12 /

n2 = 1000 * V / p D = 1000*14,4 / 3,14*23 = 194 /

180 /

V2 = p D n / 1000 = 3,14*23*180 / 1000 = 12,1 /

n3 = 1000 * V / p D = 1000*14,4 / 3,14*18 = 254,8 /

200 /

V3 = p D n / 1000 = 3,14*14*200 / 1000 = 11,3 /

n4 = 1000 * V / p D = 1000*14,4 / 3,14*23 = 194 /

180 /

V4 = p D n / 1000 = 3,14*23*180 / 1000 = 12,1 /

n5 = 1000*6 / 3,14*16 = 120 /

[8]

N1 = 0,28 .

t = 7 젠 S = 0,23

N2 = 0,28 .

t = 7 젠 S = 0,23

N3 = 0,28 .

t = 7 젠 S = 0,23

N4 = 0,28 .

t = 7 젠 S = 0,23

N5 = 0,28 .

t = 7 젠 S = 0,23

N6 = 0,28 .

t = 7 젠 S = 0,23

N7 = 0,28 .

t = 7 젠 S = 0,23

N8 = 0,28 .

t = 7 젠 S = 0,23

N = N1 + N2 + N3 + N4 + N5 + N6 + N7 + N8 = 2,24

S N £ Nn , Nn = N h,

h = 0,8 ; N =5,5

Nn = 5,5 0,8 = 4,4 . < 5,5

4,4 . < 5,5 .

N = N / h = 2,24 : 0,8 = 2,8

N = N / N = 2,8 : 5,5 = 0,5

N1 = 0,378 .

t = 11,5 젠 S = 0,23

16 .

SN = N1 + N2 + N3 + + N16 = 6,048

S N £ Nn , Nn = N h,

h = 0,8 ; N = 17

Nn = 17 0,8 = 13,6 . < 17

6,048 . < 13,6

N = N / h = 6,048 : 0,8 = 7,56

N = N / N = 7,56 : 17 = 0,44

5

n = 1000 * V / p D = 1000*14,4 / 3,14*23 = 194 /

180 /.

10 1400

- 25 II - 977-75

- Æ 250 .

:

1. t = 3 .

2. S = 0,24 1 .

3. 38 [13] = 180

4. /

V = (CV*Dq / Tm * tx * Szyv * Buv * Zpv ) * Knv =

= (332*2500,2 / 1800,2 * 30,5 * 0,240,4 * 2300,2 * 120 ) * 0,8 = 96,3

n = 1000 * V / p D = 1000*148,8 / 3,14*250 = 122,7 /

160 /.

2.13

35 1 443

- 25 II - 977-75

18 - 23.

:

1. t = 11,5

2. S = 0,23

3. 92 = 50

4. /

V = (CV*Dq / Tm * Sy) * Kv

CV - ;

D - , ;

- , ;

- .

x, q, m, y -

. 28 [13]

CV = 7 ; q = 0,40 ; m = 0,20 ;

y = 0,50 ; Kv = 0,584

V = (7 * 3,62 / 2,19 * 0,479) * 0,584 = 14 /

2.15. רҠ ̠ . Š

10             

, . .

= 1,8 [9]

1 = Lpx / S = 230 / 160 = 1,43 ();

2 = 345 / 160 = 2,15 ();

3 = 230 / 160 = 1,43 ();

2 = 2,15 () - ;

= (0 + ) * (1 + ( + ) / 100)

: - (1.1)

.- ,

. = 4%

. - ,

. = 4% 蠠 [9]

= (2,15 +1,8*1,1) + ( I + (4+4)/100 ) = 4,56 .

= * 0,8 = 4,56 * 0,8 = 0,36 .

= + = 4,56 + 0,36 = 4,92

IV .

15

, . .

= 1,8 [9]

1 = Lpx / S = 67 / 20,7 = 1,78 ();

2 = 28 / 20,7 = 1,35 ();

3 = 37 / 20,7 = 1,78 ();

4 = 28 / 20,7 = 1,35 ();

2 = 1,35 () - ;

= (0 + ) * (1 + ( + ) / 100)

: = 1,1 -

.- ,

. = 6,5%

. - ,

. = 4%

= 3,79 .

= 0,3 .

= 4,09

IV .

20 1284

, . . [9]

= 1,2 [9]

1 = Lpx / S = 67 / 17,64 = 3,4 ();

2 = 25 / 12,6 = 1,98 ();

3 = 25 / 12,6 = 1,98 ();

4 = 5 / 12,6 = 0,39 ();

5 = 55 / 14,49 = 3,11 ();

1 = 3,4 () - ;

= (0 + ) * (1 + ( + ) / 100)

: = 1,1 -

.- ,

. = 6,5%

. - ,

. = 4%

= 5,21 .

= 0,41 .

= 5,62

IV .

30 1284

, . . [9]

= 1,2 [9]

1 = Lpx / S = 28 / 16 = 1,75 ();

2 = 4 / 8 = 0,5 ();

3 = 10 / 8 = 1,25 ();

4 = 25 / 16 = 1,56 ();

5 = 35 / 11,2 = 3,12 ();

5 = 3,12 () - ;

= (0 + ) * (1 + ( + ) / 100)

: = 1,1 -

.- ,

. = 6,5%

. - ,

. = 4%

= 4,9 .

= 0,39 .

= 5,29

IV .

35 1.Π 443

, . . [9]

= 1,8 [9]

1 = Lpx / S = 26 / 38,5 = 0,67 ();

2 = 60 / 41,4 = 1,45 ();

3 = 2 / 62,5 = 0,03 ();

4 = 31 / 41,4 = 0,75 ();

5 = 26 / 240 = 0,11 ();

5 = 1,45 () - ;

= (0 + ) * (1 + ( + ) / 100)

: = 1,1 -

.- ,

. = 6,5%

. - ,

. = 4%

= 3,79 .

= 0,39.

= 4,09

IV .

40

. . [9]

=0,52 = 3,48 ()

0 = 2,96

IV .

2.16

1284, - 4- 1512. [15]

: 1512 1284

.; 370000(4) 23086

., ; 880. (4) 30

, ; 0,86 0,993

, ; 0,67 0,081

. 0,111 0,42

3

3.1.

, ; , , , , [11,12]

: , 1, 2, , , 1, R.

= 16

1 = 13,8350,3

2 = 14,7010,132

= 20,03

= 0,87 =1,74

1 = 0,54 =1,08

R = 0,14 = 0,28

2max = 2 + ES, S-

1max = 1+ ES,

2max = 14,701 + 0,132 = 14,833

1max = 13,835 + 0,3 = 14,135

dT = 1- (0,1 : 0,35) =13,835 - 0,1 = 13,735

lp1, = 6 = 12

d = = 16

d2 = 2 = 14,701

d2 = 1 + 0,055 = 13,835 + 0,055 * 2 = 13,945

a= 100

= tga ( p D / n) = 10* 3,14 * 16 / 3 = 2,95

tgax( K n / p D ) = 295 * 3 / 3,14 * 16

tgaN = tgax * sin 300 = 0,088;

tgaN3 = tgax * sin 900 - 5,4 = 0,175;

. , , .

:

.

3.2 ࠠ

- 16 - 7͠ 0742-192-84 16 -2-7 [6]

1) , , 2 =14,701

5 2 Æ 16 - 26.

6 26 + 23.

+ 9;

- 5.

14,701 + 0,023 = 14,724

(+23) - (+0,9) = 14

, 14,724 - 0,014

14,701 - 0,005 = 14,696 .

2) ; . , = 16.

II . 26 , + 30.

Æ = +2.

= - 5.

(+30) - ( +2 ) = 28

, 16,030 - 0,028.

16,0 - 0,005 = 15,995.

3) 1 = 13,835 .15

0, -26 .

-26, 13,835 - 0,026 ()

, Da/2 DPn , , . , , .

! , Z .

.. , 2 =14,966, 5 2 16 , 26.

[6] 26 + 14.

0, - 8.

14,966 + 0,014 = 14,980

- 14,980 - 0,008 = 14,973

4) . = 15,387. II 26 , + 21.

- U = 7

(+21) - (+ 7) = 28

, 15,387 - 0,028 = 15,359

5) = 13,835

15 7, 13,835 - 0,007 = 13,828

3.3

.

() , , .

[18]

PZ = [(10*P* tx * Syz * * Z) / q * nw ] * , [13]

: p - ;

t - , ;

S - , ;

- , ;

Z - ;

-

n - , /.

tx = 30,85 = 2,54; P = 12,5; Syz = 0,240,75 = 0,342; = 150; q = 1600,78 = 40,64;

nw = 160-0,13 = 0,516; = 1,12; Z = 10.

PZ1 = 8699

Æ215 :

tx = 30,85 = 2,54; P = 12,5; Syz = 0,240,75 = 0,342; = 215; q = 2500,73 = 56,29;

nw = 160-0,13 = 0,516.

PZ2 = 10,802

PZ3

tx = 30,85 = 2,54; P = 12,5; Syz = 0,240,75 = 0,342; = 150; q = 1600,78 = 40,64;

nw = 160-0,13 = 0,516; Z = 10.

PZ3 = 8699

PZ1 PZ3 - .

PZ3 堠 [13]

KM = W f1 r + W f2 r [1 / sin(a/2)]

: W -

f1 f2 -

a -

= 10802*0,16*107,5 + I0802*0,I6*I07,5 [1 / sin(90/2)] = 545426,56

W = KM / ( f1 r + f2 r sin(a/2) ) = 545426,56 * 56 / 17 + 17,2* sin(a/2)

[18]

W = 0,785 * 2 h,

: - ,

- , /2

h = 0,85 ¸ 0,90

, W W= 17896 ; == 0,4

W = 0,785 * 2 h,

h , W 1,5

1,5W = 0,785 2,

= = 292,4

Æ = 300

Æ ࠠ = 65

W = 0,785 2 / 1,5 = 18840 H

:

c = ( * lx ) / (d20 * Vc ),

: lx -

d0 -

Vc -

= ( 300 * 60) / (82 -180) = 1,5

4

4.1 .

- 6,88.

35000

[7]

= *N / 60 ,

: -

N -

- (4015).

:

10

= 4,92*35000 / 60*4015 = 0,71, .

= 71%.

15

= 4,09*35000 / 60*4015 = 0,59, .

= 59%.

20

= 5,62*35000 / 60*4015 = 0,81, .

=81%.

30

= 5,29*35000 / 60*4015 = 0,76, .

= 76%.

35

= 4,09*35000 / 60*4015 = 0,59, .

= 59%.

40

= 3,48*35000 / 60*4015 = 0,5 , .

= 50%.

% - 69%.

.

3- .

, %
10 4,92 0,71 1 71
15 4,09 0,59 1 59
20 5,62 0,81 1 81
30 5,29 0,76 1 76
35 4,09 0,59 1 59
40 3,48 0,5 1 50

= ( / )* 100% = 69%.

4.2 ڨ-

, , .

, - -.

-63, 4 , , 1,5 5.

4.3 ,

. () : [7]

T = T * * ,

- (8,2 )

-

- .

1 = 8,2*1*0,71 = 5,82

2 = 8,2*1*0,59 = 4,83

3 = 8,2*1*0,81 = 6,64

4 = 8,2*1*0,76 = 6,23

5 = 8,2*1*0,59 = 4,83

6 = 8,2*1*0,5 = 4,2

:

= *N / 60*,

-

- - ;

-

= [(365-104-8)*8,2 - 6,1] * ,

365 - ;

104 - 5- ;

8 - ;

8,2 - ;

6 - 1

-, - .

= (100 - ) / 100,

- - , 15

= (100 - 18 ) / 100 = 0,82

= (365 - 104 -8 )*8,2*6,1* 0,82 = 1930 ()

:

10

= 4,02*35000 / 80*1930 = 1,48 ,

15

= 4,02*35000 / 80*1930 = 1,23,

20

= 4,02*35000 / 80*1930 = 1,7 , .

30

= 4,02*35000 / 80*1930 = 1,6 ,

35

= 4,02*35000 / 80*1930 = 1,23 , .

40

= 4,02*35000 / 80*1930 = 1,05,

8.

- 1 - 5 ;

-1 - 3;

-1 - 3 .

: 8 + 3 = 11 .

, . [1, 15]

= F / ,

F - -

-

-

- ,

,

= t + t / t + t + t ,

堠 t - - ,

t -

t -

t - .

= 3,4+0,95 / 0,95+0,42+0,5 =2,15

2

= F / ,

= 4015*2*0,59*0,81 / 1930*2 = 1,02 , 1 .

- 15 - 112

- 20 - 1284 ,

- 30 - 1284,

- 35 - .10443

= 3,12+0,95 / 0,95+0,42+0,5 = 2,13 2 .

= 4015*2*0,59*0,76 / 1930*2 =1,01 .

8, - 3, 8+3=11.

4.4 רҠ ՠ , .

( ) ( ) ( ) .

= + ,

, , .

= S ( 1 + 2 ) * ,

1 - , 2

2- ;

2 = 6 2 + 8 2;

- ;

n - .

, ,

= + + . ,

- , 15%

- , 6%

. - ,

, .

Р = 14,69 + 6 + 5,29 + 6 + 9,81 + 6+30,86+6 = 1002

. . = Q*N*T / * q * K

Q - ,

N - , ;

- (6),

p - ( 253),

q - ( 1 2 - 1,5 );

. . = 37,7*35000*6 / 253*1,5*0,4 = 47 2

. . = 27,4*35000*6 / 253*1,5*0,4 = 352

. = 100 + 47 + 35 = 182

V = 182*6 = 1092 3

5

 

5.1 .

, . , .

, . .

.

.

.. , , , , , .

5.2

, - , .

, , . .

. , - , , .., .

: - , ; - . - .

- , ..

. . ( , ) . .

: , , , , , () .

5.3

"" - .

. , , , , . .

, , . . .

5.4 , ,

. (, ), . .

. :

= ( *F * *h* ) / = 120*4015*2*0,5 / 0,96*0,85 = 59044 /

: - , ;

F - ;

Ѡ - ;

h - 0,75;

- (0,4 - 0,6);

..- , (0,95 - 0,97);

- (0,8 - 0,85).

, ( ) .

()

= + + - ,

: - ;

- ;

- ;

- ;

. , ;

;

.

, :

) ;

) ;

) - .

:

= (L / l +1)*Tcm(1-b),

: L - , ;

l - , , ;

Tcm - , .. 蠠 ;

b - (b = 0,05 ¸ 0,10).

= (15/3+1)*0,5(1 - 0,05) = 2,85 ()

-

n = S (N*t / *60) ,

: - , ;

N - , .;

t - , .;

- .

Æ 23

n = S (35000*1,45 / 2,85*60) = 296

Æ 14

n = S (35000*0,68 / 2,85*60) = 137

n = S (35000*0,5 / 2,85*60) = 102

n = S (35000*0,11 / 2,85*60) = 23

n = S (35000*1,43 / 2,85*60) = 292

6.

6.1

= F * 1,1 ,

: Fo - [2]

= 180 1,1 6 35 = 41580 (.) / 2079000

( ) 113499 . / 5674950

- ( ) 9410 ./ 470500

. 50% .

1400 560 50/100 = 280 .

112 350 50/100= 175 .

1284 350 50/100 = 175 .

10443 230 50/100 = 115

:

280+175+175+175+115 = 920/46000

. 20

20 * 8 = 160 ./8000

20 * 8=160 ./8000

4 -

,

/

,

%

- ,

/

-

41580/2079000

383419/19170950

9410/470500

920/46000

160/8000

160/8000

1500/75000

3,0

14

16

20

12

12

50

1247/62350

54828/2741400

1562/78100

184/9200

20/1000

20/1000

750/37500

:437149 ./23657450 堠 58612/2930600

6.2.

, - .

[2];

M = (Q * P * q0 * P0)*N,

: Q - , ;

P - 1 , / ;

- - ;

q0 - , ;

P0 - 1 , ;

N - , ;

=(37,7 * 0,47 * 1,05 10 * 0,024) * 39 000 = 659572,79/ 32978600

6.3.

, 40 1 .

5 :

40 5 = 200 ./ 10000

6.4.

:

3c=Cl SN * F * * /e * g

: 1 - 1/ ( 0,0051 / 0,255 );

F - , ;

F - , ;

- (0,88);

- (0,74 0,75);

e - ( (0,85);

g - (0,95);

3c = 0,0051 * 120 * 4015 * 0,88 * 0,7/0,85 * 0,95 = 1874,45 / 93722,5 .

[3];

= * Qc ,

: - 13 ( 0,002 /0,1);

Q - , 3;

Q = F * * * q,

: = 5 ;

q =1 3 / - 1 .

Q = 4015 * 0,88 * 5 * 1 = 17 766 3 ;

= 0,002 * 17 766 = 35,33 ./1248,21

.

[2]

= 1 * W,

: 1- 1/ (0,0051/0,26);

W - , [2];

W = d cp * F * T/1000?

: d cp - c 12;

F - (182 2 );

- ( 2630 );

1,05- 5 %

W = 25 * 1.05 * 182 * 2630/1000 = 11966.5 򠠠

= 0,0051 * 11 * 966,5 = 61,02 ./3051

[2];

S = * W,

: - 1 ( 4,66/233);

W - ;

W = q n * V * T/g * 1000,

: q n - 1 3 (25435 /);

\/ - ;

- (4320);

g - (540 /).

W = 25 *1092 * 4320/540 * 1000 = 218

S = 4,66 * 218 = 1016 /50800 .

:

S . = . * Q ,

: . - 1 2 (10 );

Q - ;

Q = q * * /1000,

: q - (75 );

- 1 (253 );

- (10).

Q = 75 * 253 * 10/1000 = 189,75 3;

S . = 0,1 * 189,75 = 18,97 / 948,5 .

:

. = * Q * * Z,

: - 1 3 (0,10 /5);

Q- 1 ( 25 3);

Z- ;

-

. = 0,10 * 25 * 5 * 0,85 * 2 = 21,25 /1062,5.

6.5.

:

1. [2]

= * t * N/60,

: t - -

Ҡ -

. 8 , , 4 4 .

, , :

:

10

= 0,67 .

= 0,67 * 4,92 * 35000/60 = 1992,9 /99645.

t = 4.92

1.

= * 30/100 = 1992,9 * 30/100 = 597,87 /29893

2. /

1992,9 + 597,87 = 2590,77 /129538,5

3. =10%

= 2590,77 * 10/100 = 259,07 /12953,5

4.

= 2590,77 + 259,07 = 2849,84 /142492

5. 15%

= 2849,84 * 15/100 = 427,476 /21374

6.

= 2849,84 + 427,476 = 3277,31 /163865,5

40

= 0,67 ᠠ t = 3,48

= ,67 3,48 * 35000/60 = 2030 /101500

I.

= 2030 * 30/100 = 609 /30450

2.

2030 + 609 = 2639 /131950

3. = 10%

= 2639 * 10/100 = 263 /13150

4.

2639 + 263 = 2902 /145100

5. 15 %

= 2902 * 15/100 = 435,30 / 21765

= 2902,15 + 435,30 = 3337,45 /166872,5

.

15 20 , 4 , 4

. 0,7

.

15 20

= 0,67 /33,5堠 = 0,67 /33,5

= 0,67*4,09*35000/60 = 1598,5 /79925 ;

= 0,67*5,62*35000/60 = 2196,48 /109824 ;

= (1598,5 + 2196,48) * 70/100 = 2655,08 /132754

1.

= 2655,08 * 30/100 = 796,52 /39826 ;

2. /

0 = 2655,08 + 796,52 = 3451,6 /172580 ;

3. = 10%

. = 345,16 * 10/100 = 345,16 /17258

4.

= 3451,6 + 345,16 = 3796,76 /189838

5. 15%

= 3796,76 * 15/100 = 569,51 /28475,5

6.

= 3736,76 + 569,51 = 4366,27 /218313,5

30 35

= 0,67 /33,5 堠 = 0,67 /33,5

= 5,29 = 4,09

= 2067,5 /103375 堠 = 1598,5 /79925

= (2067,5 + 1598,5) * 70/100 = 2566,2 /128310

1.

= 2566,2 * 30/100 = 769,86 /38493

2.

2566,2 + 769,86 = 3336,06 /166803

3. =10%

. = 3336,06 * 10/100 = 333,6 /16680

4.

3336,06 + 333,6 = 3669,66 /183483

5. 15 %

= 3669*15/100 = 550,44 /27522

6.

= 3669,66 + 550,44 = 4220,10 /211005

:

= 3277,31 + 3337,45 + 4366,27 + 4220,10 = 15201,13 /760056,5

.. = 15201,13 : 8 : 12 = 158,34 /7917

:

I.

= 1287*30/100 = 389,36 /19468

= 1041,21*30/100= 312,36 /15618 .

2.0

1287 + 389,36 = 1676,36 /83818 .

1041,21 + 312,36 =1353,57 /67678 .

. =10%

1676,36*10/100=167,63 /8381,5 .

1353,57*10/100=135,35 /6767,5 .

4.

1676,36 + 167,63 =1843,99 ./92199,5

1353,57 + 135,35 =1488,92 ./74446 .

5. 15%

1843,997*15/100= 276,59 ./13829,5 . 100

1488,92*15/100 = 223,33 ./11166,5 .

6.

1843,99 + 276,59 = 2120,59 ./106029 .

1488,92 + 223,33 = 1712,25 ./85612,5 .

7 . :

2120,59:12 =176,71 . / 8835

. 1712,25: 12 = 142,68 ./7134 .

= . . + . ,

= 15201,13 +2120,59 +2 ' 1712,25 = 20746,22 /1037311 .

6.6.  

, .

1.            

)

2.             14 %

3.             ,

)

)

) -

4.            

)

)

5.             ,

6.            

7.            

8.            

9.             (3%)

10.         

11.         

277254,5

145223,5

3051

50800

948,5

93722,5

1766,5

765900

397250

212500

20000

58830

16500

11000

: 2053246

6.7.           

( ):

659572+56266+2128=717794,21 ./35889710,5

80%

15201,13*80/100 = 12160,90 ./608045

= 729955,11 /36497755,5 .

5% - 36497,75/1824887,5 .

= 766452,86 /38322643 .

15%

=114967,92/5748396.

.= 881420,78/44071000 .

:

/e = 114967,92/766452,86*100 = 15 %

881420,78 /44071000 .

= /. . =881420,78/437149 = 2,01

= .../ . . .=437149/7 =

= 62450 /3122500

= . ./ . . .

= 11/7 = 1,6

1 = / = 881420,78/11 =

= 80129 /4006450 .

6.8.-

, :

.

.

-

.

.

.

%

2

.

.

%

.

35000

881420,78

11

8

3

4

20746,22

5

383419

120

69

182

20,50

114967,92

15

2,01

62450

1. O.K., .. .: , 1984,304.

2. ., .. . ..,1971.

. .., .., . .: ,1983. ..

4. .. " "..:,1985,184.

5. .., .., .. . .:,1984.

6. .. . .: ,1976.

7.0 . .:,1967,.1.

8.0 - . .:,1974.

9. .. ..:,1975.

10. ..:,1986.

11. .. .7, .. . .',1962.

12. - 2- / . .. . ,1985,496.

13. -/ . .. . .

3-, . .: , .2,1972, 720.

14. - .. . .: ,1974,19.

15. .. .. --..:,1975.456.

16., . .: ,1973.

17. .. , 1966 .

, :
- -
-
-
-
-
"" -
1

,